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    Host Defense Information

    The BeeFriendly™ Research Initiative

    The BeeFriendly™ Research Initiative

    What Is BeeFriendly?
    BeeFriendlyis a Host Defense® initiative to help reverse the devastating declines in the global bee population that are critically threatening the world’s food security.

    Why Do Bees Need Help?
    In 2015, Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) rates increased 6% to affect 41% of managed bee colonies nationwide. Some scientists estimate that all managed bee colonies could face total decimation by CCD within five years. Although CCD is not fully understood, it appears to be a destructive synergism of multiple factors. Pathogen (bacterial & viral) infection harms bees already challenged by other stress factors: parasitic mites, pesticides, fungicides and GMO exposure. These stressors of infection, parasitism, toxins, and immune deficits/depression may initiate CCD.

    Why Host Defense?
    Bees need comprehensive immune support to combat the diseases, parasites, and toxins that are driving their decline. Supporting Host Defense means supporting bee recovery research and development.

    Drivers of Colony Decline

    The BeeFriendly™ Research InitiativeMicrobial Viral Pathogens
    Apparently healthy bee colonies may be simultaneously infected by multiple pathogens that are normally held in check by the colony’s immunity. Pathogen infection harms bees already challenged by other stress factors.

    Parasitic Mites
    Varroa mites are parasites that feed on the bodily fluids of bee adults, pupae and larvae. Varroa mites transmit viruses and sap strength from the colony.

    Pesticides, Fungicides & GMO Exposure
    Sub-lethal pesticide exposure can alter bee immunity, behavior, smell, memory, metabolism, flight and mobility, and increase susceptibility to diseases. Exposure to fungicides kills or reduces the beneficial fungi found on pollen, and degrades the nutritional quality of the “bread” that the bees make from it. More research is needed, though many suspect that GMOs may negatively impact bee colonies. 

    The synergistic stressors of infection, parasitism, toxins, and immune deficits/depression may initiate Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). 

    BeeFriendly Approach to Recovery 

    Immune Support 
    Researching the role that extracts of the mycelium of mushrooms can have in strengthening the immune systems of bees and reducing their viral burden.

    Controlling Bee Parasites
    Developing ways to use the common bio-control fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. Significantly, this fungus is safe for bees, birds and humans and appears to be highly active against Varroa mites. 

    Detoxification Support
    The bee genome has relatively few detoxification genes compared to solitary insects such as flies and mosquitoes. Select mushroom species release myconutrients that may modulate and up-regulate detoxification pathways in bees. 

    BEE F R I E N D L Y™ 

    Stamets 7- The Functional Food Multiple

    Stamets 7- The Functional Food Multiple

    The Functional Food Multiple Formula Designed for Daily Maintenance*

    On a daily basis, we come into contact with over 2000 carcinogenic compounds. Just some of these include:

    • Benzenes from solvents, paints, and dry cleaning
    • Formaldehyde from laminated wood, particle board and some foam insulations
    • Nitrosamines from cigarette smoke
    • Aromatic hydrocarbons from petro-chemicals, paints and various fuels and their exhausts
    • Xeno-estrogens from PCB’s (Polychlorinated Biphenyl, parabens, phthalates, BPA (Bisphenol A)

    Increasingly, people turn to a core group of supplements that typically includes a multivitamin, a probiotic and a DHA/EPA essential fatty acid. This regimen offers some daily support, but what can you take daily for core immunity, for cellular and foundational support throughout the year, to shield from everyday environmental stressors?

    Stamets 7® is the multifaceted, whole-food answer for a daily multiple supporting Immunity for Life!* A balanced formula of seven well-researched species, Stamets 7® offers functional food nutrition on a cellular level to complete your daily regimen.

    Combining mushrooms provides the following benefits:

    • Increased Natural Killer Cell and macrophage numbers and their activity when compared to same sized serving of single species
    • Full range of macro- and micronutrients from the mushroomforming mycelium and growth medium
    • Whole food nutrition, readily digestible and absorbable by the body
    • Novel compounds
    • Greater range of nutrients to support the major systems of the body, when compared to taking a single species

    Stamets 7 Take Away Points

    • A functional food multiple formula that fills the gap in a Core Daily Supplement Regimen
    • Support for daily metabolic and environmental assaults*
    • Full range of macro-nutrients including readily digestible and absorbable proteins and polysaccharides
    • Mushrooms in concert together offer greater range of nutrients to support major bodily systems*

    Why Take A Beneficial Mushroom For Health?

    Why Take A Beneficial Mushroom For Health?

    we share more DNA with mushrooms than with plants

    Because of this connection, we can easily utilize compounds from beneficial mushrooms for total body support.*

    mushrooms support our natural immunity

    Plus they give nutrients to support every body system, from brain and nerves to energy to skin cells.*

    mushrooms are the original superfood

    Used cross-culturally for thousands of years, ancient people utilized beneficial mushrooms for health and as sources of food.

    Modern science continues to recognize the array of health-supporting compounds found in mushrooms.*

    mushrooms are functional food, can be used everyday and have a full-spectrum of constituents which:

    • support a multitude of body systems*
    • augment the body’s immune system*
    • provide building blocks for our systems on a cellular level*
    • contain enzymes to support digestion and assimilation of nutrients*
    • contain polysaccharides to increase the activity & effectiveness of natural killer cells and macrophages*
    • neutralizes free radicals with antioxidant activity*
    • contain prebiotics and are food sources for probiotic microflora in the intestinal tract
    • support stress and fatigue reduction*
    • provide support for daily metabolic and environmental assaults*
    • offer a food source of nutrition that is readily digestible and absorbable*

    Glossary of Terms

    Glossary

    Arabinoxylane - A compound comprised of two sugars: arabinose and xylose, and derived from the conversion of rice bran via extracellular enzymes exuded from mycelium. Enhances immune response.

    Beta-Glucans - Polysaccharides found in mushroom cell walls, formed of sugar molecules arranged in specific patterns, and notable for immune modulation.

    Ergosterol - A biological precursor (provitamin) to vitamin D2, native to fungal cell membranes.

    Extracellular metabolites - Substances excreted from fungal mycelia into the growth medium. These compounds include enzymes, acids, sterols, antimicrobials, etc., whose functions range from digesting the substrate to protecting the organism from predators and competitors.

    Fruitbodies - The reproductive phase of the fungal organism that holds the spores for propagation. This form typically has a stem and cap.

    Functional Food - Food-based products containing additional health-promoting benefits beyond basic nutrition.

    Galactose - Simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in plants, fungi, and dairy products. Precursor or building block to complex compounds like glycoproteins and other glycoforms.

    Glucose - Simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in plants and fungi. Absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion, and used as primary metabolic fuel.

    Glycoproteins - Compounds consisting of carbohydrates (saccharides) and proteins. Immunologically important in cell-to-cell interactions, including white blood cell recognition. Glycoproteins also help bind together connective tissues.

    Inoculate - To introduce fungal mycelia into a new environment that contains the nutrients and other conditions necessary for expansion or growth (e.g. mycelia added to brown rice).

    Macro-nutrients - Proteins, fats and carbohydrates found within foods that provide energy to human bodily systems.

    Mannose - Simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in plants and fungi, and important in human metabolism. Precursor or building block to complex compounds like glycoproteins and other glycoforms.

    Micro-nutrients - Vitamins, minerals and trace elements which humans cannot produce, yet are required for various physiological functions. Other substances (typically complex molecules) such as antioxidants, phyto-chemicals, sterols, etc., also fit within the micronutrient classification.

    Mycelium - The vegetative, root-like part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. Typically found on/within the growth medium (wood, grain, organic matter).

    Mycology - The scientific study of fungi.

    Mycoattractants - Fungi used for attracting and controlling insects and arthropods, replacing toxic, chemical-based pesticides.

    Mycoremediation - The use of fungi to restore physically damaged or toxic ecosystems to a functional, balanced state.

    P-Value™ - An exponential scale devised by Paul Stamets for measuring the expansion or age of mycelium through successive inoculations. Indicates how close a mushroom strain is to its origin.

    Polysaccharides - Long, complex carbohydrate compounds. Important dietary elements for humans that provide source of energy.

    Primordia - A stage of the fungal life cycle at which the mycelial mat has developed adequately to support the reproductive stage of the organism and birth the fruitbody. Moreover, the primordial stage contains the constituents of both the mycelia and the fruitbody, as both stages are simultaneously present.

    Spores - Seed-like structure of fungal life cycle containing genetic material that is matured in the fruitbody and ejected into the environment to propagate the species.

    Substrate - Growth medium or food source. For Host Defense supplements, we use organic brown rice for mycelia and red alder wood chips for some fruitbodies.

    Triterpenoids - Large class of organic compounds that form the structural precursors to all steroids. Are major biosynthetic building blocks within nearly every living creature.

    Xylose - Simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in plants and fungi. Precursor or building block to complex compounds like glycoproteins and other glycoforms.

    For educational purposes only. © 2013 Paul E. Stamets and Fungi Perfecti, LLC, All rights reserved.