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    Host Defense Information

    Primordial Chocolate™ Triple Mint Bark

    Primordial Chocolate™ Triple Mint Bark

    For a unique twist on a classic peppermint bark, try our Primordial Chocolate™ Triple Mint Bark!  With a mix of Primordial Chocolate™ Dark Mint, MycoShield® Peppermint Spray, white chocolate, and candy canes, this bark is sure to be a hit at any party.  It doesn’t require baking and takes only minutes to prepare!
    Not only is this a delicious treat, but it has beneficial mushroom mycelium from Lion’s Mane, Reishi, Cordyceps, Chaga, Agarikon, Birch Polypore, and Turkey Tail!  Remember that mushrooms are synergistic and work together to support your immune system.*
    Triple the mint!  Our Primordial Chocolate™ Dark Mint, MycoShield® Peppermint Spray, and crushed peppermint candy canes pack a triple punch of mint flavor. And the rich 70% cacao in our Primordial Chocolate™ offers delicious balance to the sweetness of the white chocolate.



    Prepare a baking sheet with parchment paper and set aside. Place white chocolate chips in a medium bowl and microwave in 30 second increments until melted. Spray melted chocolate with the MycoShield® and stir until smooth. Break up the Primordial Chocolate™ into pieces and add the oil to a bowl. Repeat microwaving instructions. Spread the white chocolate onto your prepared baking sheet. Take the dark chocolate and drizzle or swirl over the white chocolate. Sprinkle with candy cane pieces. Allow to harden in refrigerator for 20 minutes, then break up into pieces, and enjoy!


    *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.  These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.


    Reishi & Primordial Chocolate™ No-Bake Cookie Dough

    Reishi & Primordial Chocolate™ No-Bake Cookie Dough

    Why not get a double whammy of mushroom-mycelium-powered goodness in this edible raw cookie dough made with chopped Primordial Chocolateᵀᴹ and Host Defense® Reishi Powder? Combine these with a few household ingredients and voila! Cookie dough in minutes. Vegan, paleo-friendly, and gluten free!

    Takes about 15 minutes. Makes about 24 table-spoon-sized bites.


    Chop Primordial Chocolate™ Salted Maca Crunch bars into small chunks and set aside. Heat coconut oil until liquid. Add almond flour, maple syrup, oil, Reishi powder, and vanilla to a medium bowl. Using a spoon, stir until thickened and well-incorporated. Fold in chopped chocolate. Top with sprinkles if desired. Enjoy with a spoon straight from the bowl, or ball into tablespoon sized bites. Bites best served chilled.



    *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.  These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

    Decoding Latin Binomials

    Decoding Latin Binomials

    What's in a Name?

    By Tristan Woodsmith

    Have you ever wondered why scientists use complicated, italicized, tongue-twisting terminology to describe living organisms? Why in the world would someone choose to say Canus lupus familiaris, when “Dog” is so much simpler? The truth is there are many advantages to the use of scientific names when referring to living things, beyond sounding sophisticated or impressing those surrounding you. You have likely seen these “scientific names” listed as ingredients in food, nutritional supplements, cosmetics, or in articles about nature. They often appear in parenthesis, following the more familiar “common name.” For example: Turmeric (Curcuma longa) or Black Pepper (Piper nigrum). Although it is unlikely that you’d hear “Please pass the Piper nigrum” at the dinner table, there are many situations where scientific names are entirely appropriate, and even preferable.

     Names, in any form, are distinctive designations of persons and things. Names differentiate and clarify our identities as people, and instill in us a sense of uniqueness and individuality. They also allow us to differentiate things around us (including other organisms) and clearly communicate observations about these things with other people. In biology, we have developed a formal system of naming living organisms, known as binomial nomenclature. Each species is given a unique scientific name with two terms (bi-nomial), both of which use Latin grammatical forms composed of Latin, Greek and other roots. To use a familiar example, “human” is the common name referring to the species “Homo sapiens.” The two parts of a binomial represent the generic name (which identifies the genus to which the species belongs) followed by the specific epithet (which identifies the species within the genus). For example, the Shiitake mushroom belongs to the genus Lentinula and the species Lentinula edodes.

    This system was originally developed by Carl Linneus and published in Systema Naturae (The System of Nature), his hierarchical system of classification for nature. In this work, he attempted to describe all living things within the ranks of kingdom, class, order, genus and species. Although the last edition was published in the 1760s, much of Linnean taxonomy is still in use today, with additional ranks added along the way. 

    Originally, there were only 3 kingdoms:  Stones, Plants, and Animals. Fungi, Algae and Lichens were all considered part of the kingdom Plantae, which remained the case until the mid-20th century. In 1969, Robert Whittaker proposed a five-kingdom classification system which recognized an additional kingdom for the Fungi (Whittaker, 1969). This formal distinction, which had previously been proposed by many, was long overdue. Some may recall the following mnemonic phrase from High-School Biology class: King Phillip Can Order Frog Gut Soup, representing the hierarchical taxonomic ranks of Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species. Think of binomial nomenclature as the Gut Soup of it all.

    One important advantage is universality – as binomial nomenclature is accepted by speakers of all languages; it largely eliminates ambiguity, so any one species cannot be confused with another. Another advantage is descriptiveness – as the names are typically representative of the organism’s morphology or pay homage to the person or influential teacher who named the species.

    In contrast, common names are not unique, and often can be confusing and redundant. With common names, there is always room for interpretation. For example: Someone hunting Hen of the Woods may accidentally call it Chicken of the Woods, confusing a fellow mushroom hunter.  Had they used Grifola frondosa (Maitake, a.k.a. Hen of the Woods), there is little to no chance someone would assume they are referring to Laetiporus sulphureus (Sulfur Shelf, a.k.a. Chicken of the Woods). 

    Another delicious example is Lion’s Mane. There are at least four different species that grow in North America and are collected for food. All are commonly referred to as “Lion’s Mane.” So how do you know which one is being referenced? Maybe you don’t care, for regardless of the true identity, this mushroom is destined to sizzle in a well-oiled skillet and be long gone before the day is done. However, if your interests lie outside the pot, you would have to use the proper scientific name to correctly describe the species of interest: Hericium erinaceus, H. americanum, H. coralloides, or H. abieties.

    At first glance, binomial nomenclature may appear intimidating due to the use of Latin and Greek roots. Names like Lactarius, Gomphidius, Hypsizygus, Pleurotus, or Xeromphalina can tie one’s tongue and send the head spinning. Who needs Peter and his Peppers or Sally and the Seashore when you have Craterellus cornucopiodes and Tricholoma magnivelare? Although seemingly complicated at first, you may already be familiar with some commonplace scientific names. For instance: Alligator, Asparagus, Citrus, Hippopotamus, Rhododendron, and Chrysanthemum are all generic names. It’s a matter of familiarity. Pronouncing Latin and Greek may also seem like a daunting task, but don’t fret – there is no “correct” way. Latin pronunciation has continually evolved throughout the centuries, so however you say it is likely nowhere close to the way Latin was, or should be pronounced. Is Amanita “ah-mah-nee-tah” or “am-uh-nahy-tuh”? Forget about long versus short vowels, or stressing antepenultimate syllables. As Paul Stamets puts it: “Say it with authority!”

    When it comes to learning scientific names, as opposed to simply memorizing all this tongue twisting terminology, discovering the meaning of a name can be extremely helpful in remembering it. A Latin or Greek dictionary can be particularly useful in this endeavor, or a comprehensive book about mushrooms like Mushrooms Demystified by David Arora.


    Let’s explore the etymology of some of our favorite Host Defense Mushrooms:

    Lion’s ManeHericium erinaceus: “The Hedgehog-Hedgehog Mushroom”

    The generic name Hericium literally means “pertaining to hedgehog”, and erinaceus mirrors that meaning (Erinaceus is also a genus of hedgehog.) As these mushrooms have spines or teeth (as opposed to gills), they appear rather hedgehog like.

    ReishiGanoderma lucidum: “The Bright-skinned Shiny Mushroom”

    Ganos means brightness or sheen, and derma means skin or hide. Both are derived from Ancient Greek and in combination mean shiny skin. Lucid translates to glossy or polished – again, referring to the smooth, varnished (shiny) surface of the cap. Thus, Ganoderma lucidum fairly accurately describes the appearance of the mushroom.

    CordycepsCordycpes militaris: “The Club-headed Soldier Mushroom”

    Cordy means swollen or club, and cep is head. Militar- means soldier-like, as in military. Yet again, this name makes perfect sense when you consider the morphology of this fungus.

    Turkey TailTrametes versicolor: “The Multicolored One Who is Thin”

    This name is derived from the prefix tram-, meaning thin and -etes – “one who is” with the specific epithet “versicolor”, referring to its multicolored appearance.

    MaitakeGrifola frondosa: “The Braided Fungus with an Abundance of Fronds”

    Grifola means braided fungus, whereas frond indicates a leaflike form, with the suffix -osa meaning abundance. When you look at a Maitake, it is literally a mass of numerous, overlapping leaflike caps (called fronds) branching out from a common base.

    ShiitakeLentinula edodes “The Flexible Food Mushroom”

    The genus name is derived from latin roots Lent- meaning pliable and -inus: resembling, whereas edodes is Latin for food. As Shiitake this is one of the most common and oldest gourmet mushrooms cultivated for food, the meaning of its name is perfectly sensical.

     Thanks to genetic analysis, we are entering a new era of enlightenment when it comes to fungal systematics (the field of mycology dedicated to taxonomy, classification and nomenclature). As molecular identification elucidates the relationships between these diverse and fascinating organisms, it places their nomenclature in continual flux. As fungi were originally classified based on morphological characteristics, introducing an entirely new set of information has resulted in much confusion. This nomenclatural nightmare is particularly frustrating when the latest book lists a new name for a once familiar mushroom – for example, until recently all North American Matsutake mushrooms were referred to as Tricholoma magnivelare. Now part of a “species complex”, our Western Matsutake (specimens found West of the Rocky Mountains) was given the name Tricholoma murrillianum.

    If you find yourself uncertain of the currently accepted name, a resource such as Index Fungorum (www.indexfungorum.org) can be extremely helpful. Index Fungorum is an international database indexing all formal names of the fungal kingdom. It lists all ranks for a given species (including lichens, yeasts, fossil forms, and more), synonyms, and the author of each fungal name.

     As you continue to explore mycology, with experience comes comfort and familiarity. What at first seems overwhelming and confusing, in time becomes perfectly clear. With patience and practice, anyone can learn not only edibility, but etymology as well. What’s in a name? That which we call a Reishi, by any other name would smell as sweet.


    Whittaker, Robert H. (1969) "New concepts of kingdoms or organisms. Evolutionary relations are better represented by new classifications than by the traditional two kingdom's in Avantika ". Science, 163: 150-194


    The Makings of a Successful Mushroom Foray

    The Makings of a Successful Mushroom Foray

    An interview with Tristan Woodsmith
    Education and Outreach | Equipment and Cultivation Specialist
    Fungi Perfecti

    1. What does a successful foray look like?

    A “foray” is essentially a field trip to collect wild mushrooms led by experienced mycologists. Forays come in many different shapes and sizes, depending on the intention of the group. It could be a hunt for edibles, a structured survey of the “mycota” (fungal organisms) in a given area, or merely an educational stroll through the woods to appreciate the beauty and diversity of mushrooms. Forays can be relatively short (1-2 hours), or multi-day events with camping, cooking, lectures and workshops, and lots of picking. Either way, beginner and expert mycologists alike congregate with their favorite mushroom collecting gear to forage, find and feast upon fungi.

    At a typical foray, people split into several groups directed by foray leaders who know the trails and good picking spots. After a few hours of picking, everyone gathers together and the bounty is showcased on a table, where one or more expert mycologists identify and label each specimen. Often a detailed examination of each mushroom ensues, including morphology, identification characteristics (e.g. color, texture, scent), ecology, taxonomy, et cetera. Forays provide a unique opportunity to experience the woods, offering a friendly and supportive atmosphere to learn how to identify and collect mushrooms.

    The Fruits of a Mushroom Foray

    2. What tips do you have for beginners (what to bring, what to look out for, what to be aware of, etc.)?

    Foraging in the Pacific NorthwestIf it’s your first foray, you’ll likely need to acquire a set of mushroom hunting accessories. Standard paraphernalia includes a basket, wax bags/paper or aluminum foil (to protect your mushroom specimens) a knife, a trowel, a small brush, a 10x magnifying loupe, drinking water and a snack. You’ll also likely want waterproof boots and rain gear to stay comfortable while you are out. And last but not least, safety equipment is a must: a first aid kit, compass, map and whistle.

    Besides getting lost, one of the greatest dangers to mushroom pickers is game hunters, as seasons and areas overlap. In light of this, many mushroom foragers choose to wear fluorescent “hunter orange” so they are more easily seen. You also want to ensure you are foraging on public land or otherwise have permission to be there. Believe it or not, picking wild mushrooms is restricted or regulated in many areas. Certain jurisdictions allow mushroom harvesting for personal use, some require permits for large quantities, and some limit the quantity harvested, e.g. one to 5 gallons. In some areas you can harvest a larger quantity with an educational permit. Rules and regulations continually change, so before filling your basket, be sure to check the latest mushroom harvesting rules for your destination. Also, be careful and do not consume any mushroom if you are unsure of its identity. There is a saying amongst the bemushroomed: There are old mycologists and there are bold mycologists, but there are no old, bold mycologists.

    3. Can you share your most memorable mushroom hunting experience?

    Although I have many fond memories of the hunt, my first mushroom hunting experience is still the most memorable. I must have been 10 or 12 years old at the time. My dad was taking cooking lessons from an Italian chef in exchange for some woodwork, and the chef invited us to go mushroom hunting. He took us to a secret spot near Baker Lake in the North Cascades where we picked Chanterelles and Angel Wings to our heart’s content. I will never forget the sight of hundreds of delicately thin, pure white mushrooms adorning nurse logs and stumps in stark contrast to the greens and browns of the forest floor. The mushrooms easily stood out, illuminated by dappled sunlight as it penetrated the dense canopy of Douglas fir. I now know Angel Wing’s as Pleurocybella porrigens - a white-rot decay fungus that inhabits conifer wood, but I will always remember their contribution to the extraordinary and inspiring experience of my first mushroom hunt.

    4. What are the most important things you have learned through years of forays?

    Get your bearings, and don’t lose them! When collecting mushrooms, you’ll inevitably spend a lot of time staring at the ground, going from one mushroom to the next, and it’s easy to become temporarily disoriented. Every few minutes I stop and look around, becoming familiar with the trees and underbrush as well as the lay of the land. Designate landmarks (a crooked tree, large boulder, etc.) so once you’re finished collecting you can easily find your way back. A compass and a map can be especially helpful when hunting in unfamiliar territory. Another invaluable accessory is a whistle. Not only can it help your friends find you, but if you get lost in the woods, a whistle could save your life.

    And no matter how excited you get; try to avoid picking every mushroom you see in hopes of identifying them all. At first, you will have an urge to pick everything in sight, which inevitably makes identification much more problematic. Concentrate on a few larger varieties at first, and as you become familiar, go back for the smaller, less conspicuous mushrooms that tend to be more difficult to identify.

    5. Can you share insight on the importance of sustainable harvesting? What should folks consider when mushroom hunting?

    Sustainable mushroom harvesting has long been a topic of debate amongst mycologists and mycophagists. There is much to be debated regarding ethical harvesting practices: plucking vs. cutting, how many to leave behind, or even what type of container to carry. And yet, unlike foraging for plants, the impact of mushroom harvesting on the ecosystem is not as clear.

    One study in Switzerland found that long-term and systematic harvesting in a given area did not have a measurable impact on subsequent flushes (Egli et al, 2006). An Oregon study, examining cutting stems vs. plucking whole Chanterelle mushrooms, revealed that plucking every mushroom actually resulted in an increase in yield during subsequent years! This shows that harvesting many types of mushrooms does not harm the underlying mycelium - much like picking fruit does not harm the tree (Norvell et al, 2016).

    With that said, you are impacting the ecosystem by removing mushrooms. Mushrooms host a variety of insect larvae and other organisms as they mature and decompose. They are also a food source for slugs and mammals, such as squirrels and deer. So, regardless of the impact on future yields, one should collect responsibly and only harvest some of the mushrooms in a given area. Not only is it courteous and considerate to leave some behind for another picker, but it also allows the remaining mushrooms to release their spores. Also, consider the condition of the mushroom, and leave behind any that are too old, too small, or otherwise of low quality.

    Another rule is to tread lightly. The Swiss study mentioned above found that trampling the forest floor reduced the number of mushrooms that subsequently formed. Like hiking or backpacking, try to impact the environment as little as possible. Be careful where you walk, don’t litter, and pack out any trash that you find.

    Please also keep in mind the type of mushroom you are harvesting. The research mentioned above focused on fleshy fungi like Chanterelles, Oysters, Porcini and others. Some mushrooms like Agarikon thrive only in certain habitats and have become relatively rare. Other mushrooms like Chaga have a unique life cycle and large scale harvesting may damage host trees and negatively impact the health of wild populations.

    As a beginner, it’s great to focus on more abundant, more common species. And as your skill level grows, so too will your awareness of which mushrooms can be safely harvested in abundance and which mushrooms are best left in their forest home.

    6. What recommendations do you have for folks who are interested in mycology, but don’t know how to start exploring the field?

    The best way to get involved and learn is to join your local mushroom club or mycological society! If you can find mushrooms where you live, chances are you can find mycologists as well. Organizations such as PSMS (Puget Sound Mycological Society) encourage research, education, cultivation, hunting, and cooking of mushrooms. They have meetings, classes, workshops and field trips - including forays! The North American Mycological Association (NAMA) website offers a list of affiliated clubs so you can find the organization nearest to you. Also, get a good book or two. Mycelium Running by Paul Stamets is an excellent source of information about mushrooms and how they can help our struggling planet. A field guide such as David Arora’s All That the Rain Promises and More can help you identify mushrooms and celebrate the fun in fungi.

    7. Why do you think mushrooms are amazing and why should others be excited about them, too?

    Mushrooms are incredibly diverse and fascinating organisms, not only in size but also appearance. Some are just a millimeter across or less, and others well over a meter. They come in many different colors, textures and shapes. The fungi that produce mushrooms are Nature’s recyclers, either decomposing organic material to create soil, detoxifying and restoring ecosystems, or symbiotically nurturing plants and encouraging the natural succession of forests. Once you begin to study mushrooms, you’ll discover their universal beauty, complex ecological symbioses, and incredibly rich flavors. Mushrooms are good for you too – as nutrient-rich functional foods, they are rich in protein, support the immune system and encourage health and wellness. Why wait, when there is so much to be excited about?

    Norvell, Lorelei & Roger, Judy. (2016). The Oregon Cantharellus Study Project: Pacific Golden Chanterelle preliminary observations and productivity data (1986-1997).

    Egli, Simon & Peter, Martina & Buser, Christoph & Stahel, Werner & Ayer, François. (2006). Mushroom picking does not impair future harvests - Results of a long-term study in Switzerland. Biological Conservation. 129. 271-276. 10.1016/j.biocon.2005.10.042.

    Turkey Tail & Brazil Nut Fruit Smoothie

    Turkey Tail & Brazil Nut Fruit Smoothie

    Turkey Tail is one of the most well-documented mushrooms in scientific research. With a wide spectrum of beneficial properties, Turkey Tail shows much promise in supporting the immune system with its protein-bound and unique polysaccharides.* It has been found to:

    • Support liver health*
    • Support healthy tissues*
    • Support hormonal, adrenal and immune function*
    • Be an excellent source of cellular nutrients*
    • Show prebiotic support for promoting a healthy microbiome*

    Why not get your daily serving of it in the form of a delicious mushroom-mycelium-powered smoothie?

    Garnish Your Smoothie

    Mix Your Smoothie

    Decorate Your Smoothie

    1 Cup Almond Milk
    1/4 Cup Plain Yogurt
    1 Banana
    1 Cup Frozen Fruit (We used mango and strawberry)
    1 Tsp Turkey Tail Powder
    5 Ice cubes
    6 Brazil Nuts

    To Garnish:
    Coconut, granola, mesclun greens, brazil nuts, and halved strawberries


    Combine all ingredients into blender and puree until smooth. Pour into bowl and garnish. We created a mushroom motif with halved strawberries, brazil nuts, granola, coconut, and greens!


    *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease