Free USPS Priority Mail Shipping for Your Order of $125 or More! (US orders only.)
0 Cart
Added to Cart
    You have items in your cart
    You have 1 item in your cart
    Total

    Host Defense Information — General Information

    Groundbreaking Research Gives Hope to Bees

    Groundbreaking Research Gives Hope to Bees

    Collaborative research between Host Defense's team and Washington State University has been published in Nature’s Scientific Reports! Mycelium extracts of polypore mushrooms (Reishi and Amadou) have been shown to confer an immune benefit to bees. This research provides an actionable solution against the stressors threatening bee populations and, in turn, food biosecurity around the world. We’re proud to continue our work in the field of applied mycology to help people and planet.

    Join our "Save the Bees" mailing list by clicking here to receive future correspondence and updates about these exciting developments. Bees urgently need our help.

    Please join us in this global effort and learn how you can take action.  

    Our Delivery Methods: Capsules & Extracts

    Our Delivery Methods: Capsules & Extracts

    Host Defense Delivery Methods: Capsules & ExtractsHost Defense offers delivery method options to best match your lifestyle needs. Host Defense Capsules work well for daily convenience. If you’re seeking rapid absorption by the digestive system, then Host Defense extracts may be the way to go.

    capsules

    Host Defense mushroom capsules are made with Certified Organic, non-GMO mushroom mycelium / fruitbodies, encased in a plant-based capsule made from pullulan—a non-GMO, naturally-fermented polysaccharide polymer. Pullulan is starch-free, gluten-free, and preservative-free, and helps protect mushroom material against oxidation.

    extracts

    Host Defense Capsules & ExtractsHost Defense liquid mushroom extracts are made with U.S.A. grown and processed Certified Organic mushroom mycelium and fruitbodies. Most other brands use only hot-water extraction, which leaves out many valuable constituents.

    Host Defense extracts utilize Paul Stamets’ comprehensive Double and Triple Extraction Methods:

    1. Hot Water

    Certified organic fruitbodies of Reishi, Maitake, Turkey Tail, Lion’s Mane and Shiitake are hot-water extracted to pull out polysaccharides (e.g. beta-glucans, glycoproteins, and other high-molecular weight compounds).

    2. Ethanol

    Mycelium and fruitbodies are extracted with certified organic ethanol, which isolates antioxidants (e.g. terpenes, triterpenoids, inositols, ergosterols, sterols and myco-flavonoids).

    3. Cold Water

    Pure, filtered water is used to extract extracellular metabolites from the living mycelium within the temperature range at which the fungi’s native immune systems are most active.


    For educational purposes only. © 2017 Paul E. Stamets and Fungi Perfecti, LLC, All rights reserved.

    The Mushroom Life Cycle

    The Mushroom Life Cycle

    The mushroom life cycle remains largely invisible to most mushroom hunters; not so to cultivators. The mushroom cultivator follows the path of the mushroom life cycle. Fruitbodies form only at the completion of the mushroom lifecycle and for most species, occur but for a few days, then disappear.

    • inoculation: Spores alight upon a growth medium (or substrate). If conditions are favorable, spores will germinate.
    • spore germination: Fine fungal filaments known as hyphae grow from the spores. Compatible hyphae mate to create fertile mycelium.
    • mycelial expansion: Developing mycelium breaks down organic matter and absorbs nutrients from its surroundings. During this stage of growth, mycelium expands at an exponential rate. In its environment, mycelium encounters many competitors and predators which it repels with an amazing array of protective enzymes and compounds. In this sense, the mycelium is the immune system of the mushroom.
    • hyphal knot: Mycelium condenses into hyphal knots, which then develop into “primordia” or baby mushrooms.
    • primordia formation: The mushroom organism produces an amazing array of enzymes and optimizes the constituents of both the mycelium and the developing fruitbody. Host Defense harvests during this peak stage of growth to capture an abundant constituent profile including polysaccharides (beta glucans, arabinoxylanes), glycoproteins, ergosterols, triterpenoids and other myco-nutrients.
    • fruitbody selection: From thousands of primordia, the growing organism selects the most promising few to develop into mature fruitbodies.
    • mature fruitbody: The organism channels all of its energy and nutrients to develop the fruitbody, which will then produce spores. Spore generation is the sexual reproduction phase of the mushroom life cycle.
    • spore release: The fruitbody releases spores into the environment for propagation. Those that land on a favorable substrate (or growth medium) can germinate, beginning the life cycle anew!

    Glossary of Terms

    Glossary

    Arabinoxylane - A compound comprised of two sugars: arabinose and xylose, and derived from the conversion of rice bran via extracellular enzymes exuded from mycelium. Enhances immune response.

    Beta-Glucans - Polysaccharides found in mushroom cell walls, formed of sugar molecules arranged in specific patterns, and notable for immune modulation.

    Ergosterol - A biological precursor (provitamin) to vitamin D2, native to fungal cell membranes.

    Extracellular metabolites - Substances excreted from fungal mycelia into the growth medium. These compounds include enzymes, acids, sterols, antimicrobials, etc., whose functions range from digesting the substrate to protecting the organism from predators and competitors.

    Fruitbodies - The reproductive phase of the fungal organism that holds the spores for propagation. This form typically has a stem and cap.

    Functional Food - Food-based products containing additional health-promoting benefits beyond basic nutrition.

    Galactose - Simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in plants, fungi, and dairy products. Precursor or building block to complex compounds like glycoproteins and other glycoforms.

    Glucose - Simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in plants and fungi. Absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion, and used as primary metabolic fuel.

    Glycoproteins - Compounds consisting of carbohydrates (saccharides) and proteins. Immunologically important in cell-to-cell interactions, including white blood cell recognition. Glycoproteins also help bind together connective tissues.

    Inoculate - To introduce fungal mycelia into a new environment that contains the nutrients and other conditions necessary for expansion or growth (e.g. mycelia added to brown rice).

    Macro-nutrients - Proteins, fats and carbohydrates found within foods that provide energy to human bodily systems.

    Mannose - Simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in plants and fungi, and important in human metabolism. Precursor or building block to complex compounds like glycoproteins and other glycoforms.

    Micro-nutrients - Vitamins, minerals and trace elements which humans cannot produce, yet are required for various physiological functions. Other substances (typically complex molecules) such as antioxidants, phyto-chemicals, sterols, etc., also fit within the micronutrient classification.

    Mycelium - The vegetative, root-like part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. Typically found on/within the growth medium (wood, grain, organic matter).

    Mycology - The scientific study of fungi.

    Mycoattractants - Fungi used for attracting and controlling insects and arthropods, replacing toxic, chemical-based pesticides.

    Mycoremediation - The use of fungi to restore physically damaged or toxic ecosystems to a functional, balanced state.

    P-Value™ - An exponential scale devised by Paul Stamets for measuring the expansion or age of mycelium through successive inoculations. Indicates how close a mushroom strain is to its origin.

    Polysaccharides - Long, complex carbohydrate compounds. Important dietary elements for humans that provide source of energy.

    Primordia - A stage of the fungal life cycle at which the mycelial mat has developed adequately to support the reproductive stage of the organism and birth the fruitbody. Moreover, the primordial stage contains the constituents of both the mycelia and the fruitbody, as both stages are simultaneously present.

    Spores - Seed-like structure of fungal life cycle containing genetic material that is matured in the fruitbody and ejected into the environment to propagate the species.

    Substrate - Growth medium or food source. For Host Defense supplements, we use organic brown rice for mycelia and red alder wood chips for some fruitbodies.

    Triterpenoids - Large class of organic compounds that form the structural precursors to all steroids. Are major biosynthetic building blocks within nearly every living creature.

    Xylose - Simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in plants and fungi. Precursor or building block to complex compounds like glycoproteins and other glycoforms.

    For educational purposes only. © 2013 Paul E. Stamets and Fungi Perfecti, LLC, All rights reserved.

    Books by Paul Stamets

    Books by Paul Stamets

    Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save The World

    Mycelium Running
    This book is a manual for the mycological rescue of the planet. Setting the stage for the mycorestoration revolution, Mycelium Running unveils new methods for growing mushrooms, generating mycelium, and implanting mushroom colonies into the environment. Capitalizing on the digestive power of mycelium, this pioneering book shows how to strengthen sustainability of habitats while providing a multitude of biological benefits. Based upon the premise that habitats and humans (animals) have immune systems, and that mushrooms are the beneficial bridges for both, Mycelium Running marks the dawn of a new era: the use of mycelial membranes for ecological health. Linking mushroom cultivation, permaculture, ecoforestry, bioremediation and soil enhancement, Stamets makes the case that mushroom farms can be reinvented as healing arts centers, steering ecological evolution for the benefit of humans living in harmony with its inhabitants. Four components of mycorestoration are described in detail:

    • Mycofiltration: the filtration of biological and chemical pathogens as well as controlling erosion
    • Mycoforestry and mycogardening:the use of mycelium for companion cultivation for the benefit and protection of plants.
    • Mycoremediation: the use of mycelium for decomposing toxic wastes and pollutants.
    • Mycopesticides: the use of mycelium for attracting and controlling insect populations.

    Moreover, Mycelium Running has chapters on nutrition, medicinal properties, log and stump culture, natural culture, using easy to use and low-tech techniques, and much more. In total, 28 species are fully described. Heavily referenced and beautifully illustrated, this book is destined to be a classic reference for generations to come. Softcover, 356 pages, with over 360 color photographs.  

    Buy Now


    Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms
    After years of living in awe of the mysterious fungi known as mushrooms-chefs, health enthusiasts, and home cooks alike can’t get enough of these rich, delicate morsels. With updated production techniques for home and commercial cultivation, detailed growth parameters for 31 mushroom species, a troubleshooting guide, and handy gardening tips, this revised and updated handbook will make your mycological landscapes the envy of the neighborhood.  

    Buy Now


    The Mushroom Cultivator
    by Paul Stamets and J.S. Chilton
    This book details the cultivation of 16 edible (including the Button/Portobello mushrooms) and health-promoting species and control measures for 40 genera of contaminants. 415 pages, with 249 black and white photographs, diagrams and scanning electron micrographs, this book is highly reviewed and used throughout the world as a mycological textbook. Known throughout the world as “The Grower’s Bible."

    Buy Now


    MycoMedicinals®: an Informational Treatise on Mushrooms
    Written by a mycologist and mushroom cultivator with more than 30 years of experience in the field, this full-color resource guide describes and documents the health benefits of 17 different species of mushrooms. Newly updated and expanded, MycoMedicinals includes answers to frequently asked questions and an extensive bibliography. 96 pages, softcover.  

    Buy Now